Turing Sources

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The Alan Turing Bibliography

compiled by Andrew Hodges
author of Alan Turing: the Enigma

Part 1: Mechanical Intelligence




A full listing of Turing's papers

The detailed listing is split between four webpages, corresponding to the four volumes of the Turing Collected Works.

Mechanical Intelligence

  • Proposed Electronic Calculator, Turing's ACE computer plan, was produced as a typescript in early 1946, an internal National Physical Laboratory document. The original copy is in the (British) National Archives, in the file DSIR 10/385.

    The report was first published as the NPL report, Com. Sci. 57 (1972), with a foreword by Donald W. Davies.

    It was then published in printed form in A. M. Turing's ACE Report of 1946 and Other Papers, eds. B. E. Carpenter and R. W. Doran, MIT Press (1986), Volume 10 in the Charles Babbage Institute reprint series for the History of Computing. The editors worked in detail through Turing's programming and annotated extensively, with a long introduction.

    In the Collected Works, the 1946 report is reproduced in the MIT Press typography, but without Carpenter and Doran's detailed notes; instead the editor Darrel Ince has annotated afresh. (It is NOT in the Impact volume or The Essential Turing.)

    A scan of the typescript is available in the Turing Digital Archive.

  • The Automatic Computing Engine, Lectures given at the Ministry of Supply, December 1946 and January 1947, by Turing and J. H. Wilkinson. A report on these was written by T. H. Marshall, Military College of Science, Shrivenham, February 1947.

    Not included in the Collected Works, but included (ed. B. J. Copeland) in K. Furukawa, D. Michie, S. Muggleton (eds.), Machine Intelligence 15, Oxford University Press (1999)

    The Turing Digital Archive has a scan of Hartree's notes on lectures 6 and 7

  • Lecture to the London Mathematical Society, February 1947. Published in 1986 as a companion to the 1946 report in the same MIT Press volume.

    The Collected Works reproduces the paper in the MIT typography, but with fresh annotations.

    Typographically reset in the Impact volume.

    Typographically reset in The Essential Turing.

    For the original Turing typescript, see the Turing Digital Archive.

  • Intelligent Machinery, report written by Turing for the National Physical Laboratory, 1948.

    The paper was first published in 1968, within the book Cybernetics: Key Papers, eds. C. R. Evans and A. D. J. Robertson, University Park Press, Baltimore Md.and Manchester (1968).
    It was also published in 1969 in Machine Intelligence 5, pp 3-23, Edinburgh University Press (1969), with an introduction by Donald Michie.

    The Collected Works reproduces the 1969 typography, unfortunately leaving some copying errors uncorrected.

    Typographically reset in the Impact volume, with many commentaries.

    Typographically reset in The Essential Turing.

    For the original Turing typescript see the Turing Digital Archive.

  • Checking a Large Routine, Paper for the EDSAC Inaugural Conference, 24 June 1949. Typescript published in Report of a Conference on High Speed Automatic Calculating machines, pp 67-69.

    Reprinted with corrections and annotations in
    An early program proof by Alan Turing, L. Morris and C. B. Jones, Ann. Hist. Computing 6 (2) pp 129-143 (1984).

    The Collected Works reproduces the original typescript.

    Printed in the Impact volume.

    Scans of both 1949 and 1984 papers in the Turing Digital Archive

  • Programmers' Handbook for the Manchester electronic computer, Manchester University Computing Laboratory (1950)

    A selection of pages from the Handbook, with a preface by M. Campbell-Kelly, appears in Part III of the Mathematical Logic volume of the Collected Works.

    This selection is reprinted, with fresh commentary, in the Impact volume.

    Scan of (presumably) Turing's own copy, in the Turing Digital Archive

    The document is transcribed into HTML form and also available as a PDF file.

    See also this page of the Manchester computer history site.

  • Local Programming Methods and Conventions, in the Manchester University Computer Inaugural Conference, July 1951.

    Reproduced in Part III of the Mathematical Logic volume of the Collected Works.

  • Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Mind 59, pp 433-460 (1950)

    Published under the title Can a Machine Think, in volume 4 of The World of Mathematics, ed. James R. Newman, pp 2099-2123, Simon & Schuster (1956). This has now been reprinted by Dover in this 2000 edition. It is also in The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence, ed. Margaret Boden, Oxford University Press (1990), and partially in The Mind's I, Douglas R. Hofstadter and Daniel C. Dennett, Basic Books (1981). Richard Dawkins has included an extract from it in The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing (2008).

    The Collected Works reproduces the original Mind typography.

    Typographically reset in the Impact volume, with many commentaries

    It is typographically reset for The Essential Turing.

    The text is available on the Loebner Prize website
    and also on this philosophy website.

    Scan of the original Mind article in the Turing Digital Archive

    There is a typescript of the article in the Turing Digital Archive, but it is not clear what connection this has with Turing.

  • Chess, a subsection of chapter 25, Digital Computers Applied to Games, of Faster than Thought, ed. B. V. Bowden, Pitman, London (1953)

    The Collected Works reproduced the entirety of this chapter, although Turing wrote only the part on chess. The part on draughts was by Christopher Strachey and (I assume) that on Nim by Audrey Bates; the introductory remarks are (I assume) by Bowden.

    Typographically reset in the Impact volume, with many commentaries.

    The subsection is typographically reset for The Essential Turing.

    Scan of Turing's typescript in the Turing Digital Archive

  • Intelligent Machinery: A heretical theory, a talk given by Turing at Manchester, typescript in the Turing Archive, included in Sara Turing's memoir (see below). Not included in the Collected Works, but included (ed. B. J. Copeland) in K. Furukawa, D. Michie, S. Muggleton (eds.), Machine Intelligence 15, Oxford University Press (1999) and also in The Essential Turing.

    Printed in the Impact volume.

    Scan of the original Turing typescript in the Turing Digital Archive.

  • Can digital computers think?, Radio broadcast, 1951 not included in the Collected Works, but included (ed. B. J. Copeland) in K. Furukawa, D. Michie, S. Muggleton (eds.), Machine Intelligence 15, Oxford University Press (1999), and in The Essential Turing.

    Printed in the Impact volume.

    Scan of Turing's typescript in the Turing Digital Archive

  • Can automatic calculating machines be said to think? Radio broadcast, 1952: discussion with M. H. A. Newman, G. Jefferson, R. B. Braithwaite, not included in the Collected Works, but included (ed. B. J. Copeland) in K. Furukawa, D. Michie, S. Muggleton (eds.), Machine Intelligence 15, Oxford University Press (1999).

    Printed in the Impact volume and in The Essential Turing.

    Scan of the BBC typescript in the Turing Digital Archive

  • Solvable and Unsolvable Problems, Science News 31, pp 7-23 (1954) is included in this volume of the Collected Works but also in the Pure Mathematics volume.

    Typographically reset in the Impact volume, with substantial review and annotation.

    Typographically reset in The Essential Turing.

    Scan of a partial typescript draft in the Turing Digital Archive, where it is placed as found, muddled up with unpublished manuscripts on morphogenesis.




The Alan Turing Bibliography:

Overview | Mechanical Intelligence | Pure Mathematics

Morphogenesis | Mathematical Logic plus cryptology




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