## Alan Turing and the Turing Test## by Andrew Hodges##
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Copeland B. J. (1999) A lecture and two radio broadcasts on machine intelligence by Alan Turing, in Machine Intelligence 15, eds. K. Furukawa, D. Michie and S. Muggleton, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999)
Davis, M. (2000) The Universal Computer (New York: Norton) Gandy, R. O. (1954) Letter to M. H. A. Newman, in The Collected Works of A M. Turing: Mathematical Logic, eds. R. O. Gandy and C. E. M. Yates; Amsterdam: North-Holland (2001) Hodges, A. (1983) Alan Turing: the Enigma, London: Burnett; New York: Simon & Schuster; new editions London: Vintage (1992); New York: Walker (2000) Hodges, A. (1997) Turing, a natural philosopher, London: Phoenix; also New York: Routledge (1999). Included in The great philosophers, eds. R. Monk and F. Raphael, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson (2000) Hodges, A. (2002) Alan M. Turing, entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (ed. E. Zalta), http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/turing/ McCulloch W. S. and Pitts, W. (1943) A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity, Bull. Math. Biophysics 5: 115-133. Penrose, R. (1989) The emperor's new mind, Oxford: Oxford University Press Penrose, R. (1994) Shadows of the mind, Oxford: Oxford University Press Penrose, R. (1996) Beyond the doubting of a shadow, Psyche electronic journal, http://psyche.csse.monash.edu.au/v2/psyche-2-23-penrose.html Turing, A. M. (1936-7) On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Proc. London Maths. Soc., ser. 2, 42: 230-265 Turing A. M. (1939) Systems of logic defined by ordinals, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., ser. 2, 45: 161-228 Turing, A. M. (1946) Proposed electronic calculator, report for National Physical Laboratory, in A. M. Turing's ACE report of 1946 and other papers, eds. B. E. Carpenter and R. W. Doran, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press (1986) Turing, A. M. (1947) Lecture to the London Mathematical Society on 20 February 1947, in A. M. Turing's ACE report of 1946 and other papers, eds. B. E. Carpenter and R. W. Doran, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press (1986) Turing, A. M. (1948) Intelligent machinery, report for National Physical Laboratory, in Machine Intelligence 7, eds. B. Meltzer and D. Michie (1969) Turing, A. M. (1950) Computing machinery and intelligence, Mind 50: 433-460 Turing, A. M. (1951) BBC radio talk, in Machine Intelligence 15, eds. K. Furukawa, D. Michie. and S. Muggleton, Oxford: Oxford University Press (1999) Turing, A. M. (1954) Solvable and unsolvable problems, Science News 31: 7-23
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